Thực phẩm giúp trẻ lên 3 thông minh

     

    Thứ
    6 : 12 / 04 / 2013   Siêu thị Mẹ & Bé : BABY SMILE PLAZA    ------------------------------------------------
     

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    (Kienthuc.net.vn) - Trẻ từ 3 - 6 tuổi đi mẫu giáo là giai đoạn não hoàn thiện chức năng, nhu cầu dưỡng chất cho sự phát triển trí não ở giai đoạn này đặc biệt cao.


     

    Cholin, tryptophan, tyrosine, DHA... cần thiết cho sự phát triển nhận thức, thị lực của trẻ. Các loại vitamin nhóm B, kẽm cũng có góp phần vào sự phát triển trí não của trẻ. 

     

     

     

    Cholin là tiền chất của chất dẫn truyền thần kinh acetylcholine rất quan trọng trong việc tạo trí nhớ và phát triển sự nhận thức cho trẻ. Người ta nhận thấy một chế độ ăn đầy đủ cholin thời ấu thơ có tác dụng phòng ngừa bệnh Alzheimer's. Ngoài vai trò là dưỡng chất của sự phát triển trí não, cholin còn đóng vai trò chống ứ mỡ ở gan và giảm nguy cơ tim mạch do khả năng chống oxy hóa. Cholin có nhiều trong gan (350mg/100g), trứng (250mg/1 cái), bắp cải (250mg/100g), đậu nành (290mg/100g).
     

     

    Cho trẻ ăn đủ 4 nhóm thức ăn gồm thịt, cá, ngũ cốc, rau xanh, trái cây.

    Tryptophan là tiền chất của hai hormon melatonin và serotonin. Melatonin điều hoà sự đồng bộ của giấc ngủ, giúp tái bảo dưỡng tế  bào não sau thời gian hoạt động. Trẻ 3 tuổi ngủ 13 giờ, 4 tuổi ngủ 12 giờ, 5 - 6 tuổi ngủ 10 giờ mỗi ngày. Serotonin kiểm soát sự tăng trưởng của tế bào thần kinh đệm, sợi trục, đuôi gai, khớp thần kinh (synapse). Nhu cầu tryptophan của trẻ 3 - 6 tuổi là 12,5mg/kg/ngày. Tryptophan có nhiều trong thịt, cá (300mg/100g), trứng (140mg/cái), sữa (45mg/100ml), vừng (500mg/100g)...

     

    DHA, docosahexaenoic axit, là một axit béo không no chuỗi dài, cùng với arachidonic axit chiếm 45% các axit béo trong não. DHA cần cho sự phát triển nhận thức và thị lực của trẻ. Nhu cầu DHA hoặc tiền chất DHA là - linolenic axit 0.5 - 1g/kg/ngày hoặc 0.3% tổng năng lượng khẩu phần. Nguồn thực phẩm giàu DHA là các loại cá béo như cá hồi, cá basa, cá ngừ, lòng đỏ trứng... Trong sữa bò không có DHA. 

     

    Để bảo đảm cung cấp đủ dưỡng chất cần thiết cho sự phát triển trí não, mẹ cần tiếp tục cho trẻ bú mẹ đến 2 tuổi hoặc uống sữa có bổ sung các vi chất, ăn mỗi ngày 1 trứng, có cá trong thực đơn mỗi ngày, đặc biệt các loại cá béo. Ngoài ra, cho trẻ ăn đủ 4 nhóm thức ăn gồm thịt, cá, ngũ cốc, rau xanh, trái cây, đủ lượng dầu để phát triển đủ tốc độ về thể lực.

     

    Ngoài tăng cường những chất giúp cho sự phát triển trí não, chúng ta cần giúp trẻ tránh những chất có hại cho hệ thần kinh như đường đơn, caffeine, trà, chocolate, cola và nước tăng lực. 

     

    TS.BS Tạ Thị Tuyết Mai (Trưởng khoa Dinh dưỡng, Bệnh viện Nhân dân Gia Định TPHCM)



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